This is a list of Richard D. Alexander’s writings, arranged first by category and then by year. Most of these, including all of his professional scientific articles, are available for download (indicated by “PDF” to the left of the entry). RDA had a broad conception of a “professional” work, including for instance some letters to newspapers, entries in society newsletters or encyclopedias, and administrative reports. This page follows his own conventions, with all of the writings listed here as professional having been designated by RDA specifically as such.

Either scroll down or click on one of these categories to browse, or else use the Find command (Ctrl-F or Cmd-F) to search this page.

RDA’s poetry is distributed among various works, so individual poems can be difficult to locate. Click here to access the gradually accumulating alphabetical collection of Richard D. Alexander’s poetry.

Professional Books & Monographs
Professional Articles
Unpublished Manuscripts
Nonprofessional Works

Professional Books & Monographs


[PDF] 1956. A Comparative Study of Sound Production in Insects, With Special Reference to the Singing Orthoptera and Cicadidae of the Eastern United States. Ph.D. Dissertation: The Ohio State University, xviii + 529 pp.  [The abstract, as published in Dissertation Abstracts, is here.]


[PDF] 1967. Singing Insects: Four Case Histories in the Study of Animal Species. Rand McNally Pattern of Life Series. Chicago: Rand McNally, 86 pp.


1979. Darwinism and Human Affairs, University of Washington Press, Seattle. xiv + 317 pp.
[Available to purchase from Amazon here and from AbeBooks here].


1983. The Australian Crickets: (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). 376 new species, 40 new genera, monograph 22, Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 477 pp. (D. Otte and R. D. Alexander).
[Available to purchase from the Academy of Natural Sciences here, and to view or purchase on Google here].


[PDF] 1987. The Biology of Moral Systems, xxii + 303 pp., Hawthorne, N. Y.: Aldine de Gruyter.
[Available to purchase from Amazon here and from Google here].




[PDF] 1981. Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory, New York: Chiron Press, ca. 500 pp. (R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle, eds.).


1991. The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat, Princeton Univ. Press. (P. W. Sherman, J. Jarvis, and R. D. Alexander, eds.).
[Available to purchase from Amazon here and Princeton here].



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Professional Articles


[PDF] 1955. Capturing the melodies of insect singers. Magnetic Film and Tape Recording Magazine 2(5A): 34-37. [The entire issue is included in this file].

[PDF] 1957. Sound production and associated behavior in insects. Ohio Journal of Science 57(2): 101-113.

[PDF] 1957. The taxonomy of the field crickets of the eastern United States(Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Acheta). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 50(6): 584-602.
Reprinted in P. Barbosa and T. M.. Peters (eds.), Readings in Entomology, W. E.. Saunders Co., 1972.

[PDF] 1957. Nemobius melodius, a new species of cricket from Ohio (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ohio Journal of Science 57(3): 148-152. (E. S. Thomas and R.D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1957. The song relationships of four species of ground crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobius). Ohio Journal of Science 57(3): 153-163.

[PDF] 1957. The periodical cicadas. Wheaton Club Bulletin 2(2): 23-26.

[PDF] 1958. Studies on the acoustical behavior of seventeen-year cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Ohio Journal of Science 58(2): 107-127. (R.D. Alexander and T. E. Moore).

[PDF] 1958. The periodical cicada complex. Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Entomology 1: 349-356 (T. E. Moore and R. D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1959. The courtship and copulation of Pasimachus punctulatus (Haldemann) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 52(4): 485.

[PDF] 1959. Systematic and behavioral studies on the crickets of the Nemobius fasciatus group (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobiinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 52(5): 591-605. (R. D. Alexander and E. S. Thomas).


[PDF] 1960. Communicative mandible-snapping in Acrididae (Orthoptera). Science 132 (3240): 152-153.

[PDF] 1960. Sound communication in Orthoptera and Cicadidae. In: Lanyon WE, Tavolga WN, editors. Animal Sounds and Communication. Washington D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences, p 38-92. [Original version included 5 sets of songs on a phonograph record.]

[PDF] 1960. Allochronic speciation in field crickets, and a new species, Acheta veletis. Evolution 14(3): 334-336. (R.D. Alexander and R. Bigelow).
Reprinted in Papers on Evolution, Ehrlich, Holm and Raven (eds.) 1969. Little, Brown Publ.

[PDF] 1961. Aggressiveness, territoriality, and sexual behavior in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behaviour 17: 130-223, 63 figs., 31 tab.
Reprinted (in part) in Territoriality: Landmark Papers in Animal Behavior, A. W.. Stokes (ed.), Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Pub. 1974, p. 364.

[PDF] 1962. Two introduced field crickets new to eastern United States (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).Annals of the Entomological Society of America 55(1): 90-94 (R.D. Alexander and T. J.. Walker).

[PDF] 1962. The role of behavioral study in cricket classification. Systematic Zoology 11(2): 53-72.

[PDF] 1962. The evolutionary relationships of 17-year and 13-year cicadas, and three new species (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada). Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 121: 1- 59. (R. D. Alexander and T. E. Moore).

[PDF] 1962. Invertebrate bio-acoustics: 1961. Bio-Acoustics Bulletin 2(2 & 3): 7-10.

[PDF] 1962. Evolutionary change in cricket acoustical communication. Evolution 16(4): 443-467.

[PDF] 1962. Systematic and behavioral studies on the meadow grasshoppers of the Orchelimum concinnum group (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Occasional Papers of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 626: 1-31. (E.S. Thomas and R.D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1963. The evolutionary differentiation of stridulatory signals in beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Animal Behaviour 11(1): 115. (R. D. Alexander, T. E. Moore, and R. E.. Woodruff).

[PDF] 1963. Sub-social behavior in a burrowing cricket, Anurogryllus muticus (De Geer) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ohio Journal of Science 63(1): 19-24 (M. J. West and R.D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1963. Mating behavior and the origin of insect wings. Occasional Papers of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 628: 1-19. (R.D. Alexander and W. L. Brown).

[PDF] 1963. Cricket. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol. 6:753.

[PDF] 1963. Invertebrate bio-acoustics: 1962. Bio-Acoustics Bulletin 3(3 & 4): 13-18.

[PDF] 1963. Animal species, evolution and geographic isolation. Systematic Zoology 12(4): 202-204.

[PDF] 1964. The evolution of mating behavior in arthropods. In K. C. Highnam (ed.), Insect Reproduction. Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London 2: 78-94.

[PDF] 1964. Communicative systems of animals: Acoustic behavior. Science 114: 713-715 (Book Review).

[PDF] 1966. The evolution of cricket chirps. Natural History 75(9): 26-31.
[PDF] Reprinted in Niles Eldredge (ed.), The Natural History Reader in Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 79-86 (1987).

1967. The beetle. Introductory Zoology Laboratory Exercise. Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Brothers Printers, 6 pp.

[PDF] 1967. Acoustical communication in arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 12: 495-526.

[PDF] 1967. Seasonal and daily chirping cycles in northern spring and fall field crickets. Ohio Journal of Science 67(4): 200-209. (R.D. Alexander and G. H.. Meral).

[PDF] 1967. Cannibalism during copulation in the brown bush cricket, Hapithus agitator Uhler (Gryllidae). Florida Entomologist 50(2): 75-87. (R.D. Alexander and D. Otte).

[PDF] 1967. Basic research and public support. Science 157(3785): 134-136.

[PDF] 1967. Protests unexpected editorial changes. Science 157(3795): 1377.

[PDF] 1967. The evolution of genitalia and mating behavior in crickets (Gryllidae) and other Orthoptera. Miscellaneous Publications of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 133: 1-62. (R.D. Alexander and D. Otte).

[PDF] 1967. A critique of Animal Species and Evolution by Ernst Mayr, pp. 1-141 (Results of a seminar with eight graduate students).

[PDF] 1968. A comparative review (of On Aggression and The Territorial Imperative). BioScience 18(3): 245-248 (R.D. Alexander and D. W.. Tinkle).
[PDF] Excerpted in P. B. Weisz (ed.), The Contemporary Scene: Readings on Human Nature, Race, Behavior, Society, and Environment (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970), pp.35-37.

[PDF] 1968. Life cycle origins, speciation, and related phenomena in crickets. Quarterly Review of Biology 43(1): 1-42.  [A “List of corrections and explanatory notes” for this paper is here.]

[PDF] 1968. Animal behavior and systematics. In: Proceedings of the Summer Institute in Systematics at the Smithsonian Institution, 25 June – 14 July 1967. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 84-132.

[PDF] 1968. Arthropods. In: Sebeok, T. A., ed. Animal Communication: Techniques of Study and Results of Research. Bloomington IN: Indiana Univ. Press, p.167-216.

[PDF] 1969. Comparative animal behavior and systematics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Systematics (Ann Arbor, Michigan, July 1967) National Academy of Sciences. Pub. 1962: 494-517.


[PDF] 1971. The search for an evolutionary philosophy of man. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne 84: 99-120.

[PDF] 1972. Behavior associated with reproduction in field crickets. In A Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Biology, Campus Publishers, Shappirio, Frye, and Ray (eds.), Ann Arbor, Michigan.

1972. Diversity of organisms. In A Laboratory Manual: Introduction to Biology, Campus Publishers, Shappirio, Frye, and Ray (eds.), Ann Arbor, Michigan.

[PDF] 1972. The singing insects of Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 5(2): 33-69. (R.D. Alexander, A. E. Pace, and D. Otte).

[PDF] 1972. Saying it with sights and sounds. In Marvels of Animal Behavior. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, pp. 88-111.

[PDF] 1973. The robust conehead: Two widespread sibling species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Neoconocephalus “robustus”). Ohio Journal of Science 73(6)321-330 (T. J. Walker, J. J. Whitesell, and R. D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1974. Evolution of sterile castes in the social insects: Kin selection or parental manipulation? Florida Entomologist 57(1): 32.

[PDF] 1974. The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 352-383.

[PDF] 1974. Jasper Loftus-Hills (Obituary), Copeia 3: 812.

[PDF] 1974. Creativity from a scientist’s viewpoint. Diagonalia: The University of Michigan LS&A College Newsletter (Dec. 1974).

[PDF] 1975. Natural enemies in place of poisons. Natural History 84(1): 92-95. (Book review of Paul DeBach’s Biological Control by Natural Enemies).

[PDF] 1975. The search for a general theory of behavior. Behavioral Science 20: 77-100.

[PDF] 1975. Natural selection and specialized chorusing behavior in acoustical insects. In: Insects, Science and Society, Proceedings of the Comstock Centennial Celebration, David Pimental (ed.), Cornell Univ., NY.: Academic Press, pp. 35-77.

[PDF] 1975. Insect control. Science 188: 206-208 (P. W.. Sherman and R.D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1977. Local mate competition and parental investment: patterns in social insects. Science 196: 494-500 (R.D. Alexander and P. W. Sherman).

[PDF] 1977. Natural selection and the analysis of human sociality. In Changing Scenes in the Natural Sciences, 1776-1976. C. E.. Goulden (ed.). Bicentennial Symposium Monograph, Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, pp. 283-337.

[PDF] 1977. Evolution, human behavior, and determinism. Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association (1976), 2: 3-21.

[PDF] 1977. [Review of] The Use and Abuse of Biology by Marshall Sahlins. American Anthropologist 79: 917-920.

[PDF] 1978. Natural selection and societal laws. In The Foundations of Ethics and its Relationship to Science, Vol. 3. Morals, Science, and Society. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY, Feb. and June 1977. T. Englehardt, Jr. and D. Callahan (eds.), pp. 249-290. [Reprinted in The Roots of Ethics: Science, Religion, and Values. The Hastings Center, Plenum Press, NY, 1981. D. Callahan and T. Engelhardt, Jr., (eds.), pp. 265-306.]

[PDF] 1978. Rejoinder to Kenneth Schaffner. In The Foundations of Ethics and its Relationship to Science, Vol. 3. Morals, Science, and Society. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY, Feb. and June, 1977. T. Englehardt, Jr. and D. Callahan (eds.), pp. 304-308. [Schaffner’s chapter is here;  it is a response to RDA’s “Natural selection and societal laws”, above.]

[PDF] 1978. Letter to editor of Michigan Daily (Rejoinder to comment on rape). [In this letter (at the bottom right of the page, entitled “sociobiology”), RDA responded to a false comment about him in this article by the “Sociobiology Study Group, Ann Arbor Science for the People”. Their comment is at the top of the middle column of the article “The Sociobiology myth”. That group then responded to his letter here (letter entitled “no misquote”)].

[PDF] 1978. Evolution, creation, and biology teaching. American Biology Teacher 40: 91-104.

[PDF] 1978. The challenge of Darwinism. Rackham Reports (University of Michigan Graduate School) 4: 1-2. [Reprinted in Michigan Discussions in Anthropology 3: 144-148.]

[PDF] 1978. Biology, determinism, and human behavior: A response to Slobodkin, Michigan Discussions in Anthropology 3: 154-166. [The original article to which RDA is responding is here. Slobodkin then wrote a response here.]

[PDF] 1978. Group selection, altruism and the levels of organization of life. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9: 449-474. (R.D. Alexander and G. Borgia).

[PDF] 1978. [Review of] The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin edited by Paul H. Barrett. Michigan Academician 9: 109-111.

[PDF] 1979. Natural selection and social exchange. In Social Exchange in Developing Relationships, R. L. Burgess and T. L. Huston (eds.), NY: Academic Press. pp. 197-221.

[PDF] 1979. The origin and basis of the male-female phenomenon. In Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects, M. F. Blum and N. A.. Blum (eds.), Academic Press, pp. 417-440 (R.D. Alexander and G. Borgia).

[PDF] 1979. Evolution and culture. In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective. North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, pp. 59-85, N. A. Chagnon and W. G. Irons (eds.).

[PDF] 1979. Sexual dimorphisms and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, and humans. In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective., N.A. Chagnon and W. G. Irons (eds.), North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, , pp. 402-435 (R. D. Alexander, J. L. Hoogland, R. D. Howard, K. L. Noonan, and P. W. Sherman).

[PDF] 1979. Concealment of ovulation, parental care and human social evolution. In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, N. A. Chagnon and W. G. Irons (eds.), North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, pp. 436-453 (R. D. Alexander and K. M. Noonan).

[PDF] 1979. Sexuality and sociality in humans and other primates. In Human Sexuality: A Comparative and Developmental Perspective, H. Katchadourian (ed.). Berkeley, Calif., Univ. of Calif. Press. pp. 81-97. [This chapter can stand alone, but in part responds to the previous chapter, by Jane Lancaster, here.]

[PDF] 1979. Human sexuality and evolutionary models. In Human Sexuality: A Comparative and Developmental Perspective, H. Katchadourian (ed.). Berkeley, Calif, Univ. of Calif. Press, pp. 107-112. [This piece is sensible by itself, but is (rather oddly) billed as a commentary on the chapter (mostly by Frank Beach) of which it forms the final section. The chapter in its entirety, including RDA’s comments, is here.]

[PDF] 1979. Evolution, social behavior, and ethics. In The Foundation of Ethics and Its Relationship to Science,IV. Science, Morals, and Society, T.E. Engelhardt and D. Callahan (eds). Hastings-on-Hudson, New York: The Hastings Institute. pp. 124-155. [Reprinted in The Roots of Ethics: Science, Religion, and Values. The Hastings Center, Plenum Press, NY, 1981. D. Callahan and T. Engelhardt, Jr., (eds.), pp. 307-338.]

[PDF] 1979. Comment on Boucher, et al. Michigan Discussions in Anthropology 4: 34-35. [The original article to which RDA is responding is here].


[PDF] 1980. Field crickets (Gryllus and Acheta) of California and Baja, California (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae), Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106: 327-356 (D. B. Weissmann, D. F. C. Rentz, R. D. Alexander, and W. Loher).

[PDF] 1980. The Social Insects [Review of H.R. Hermann, ed., The Social Insects. New York: Academic Press]. Bioscience 31: 64-65 (R. D. Alexander and K. M. Noonan).

[PDF] 1981. Introduction to Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory.  R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle (eds), New York: Chiron Press, pp. xi-xii.

[PDF] 1981. Evolution, culture, and human behavior: some general considerations. In Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle (eds), New York: Chiron Press, pp. 509-520.

[PDF] 1982. Culture theory: the developing synthesis from biology, Human Ecology 10(3): 383-400, (M. Flinn and R. D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1982. Biology and the moral paradoxes. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 5: 389-395. [Reprinted, 1983, In Law, Biology, and Culture, M. Gruter and P. Bohannan (eds.), Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erikson, Inc., pp. 101-111].

[PDF] 1985. Genes, consciousness, and behavior theory. In A Century of Psychology as Science, Sigmund Koch and David E. Leary (eds.). N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, pp. 783-802.

[PDF] 1985. A biological interpretation of moral systems, Zygon 20: 3-20.

[PDF] 1986. Ostracism and indirect reciprocity: the reproductive significance of humor. In Ethology and Sociobiology 7: 253-270R, Masters and M. Gruter (eds).
[PDF] Translated and republished in German as: Ostrazismus und Indirekte Reziprozität: Die reproduktive Bedeutung des Humors. pp.79-99 in Gruter, Margaret & Rehbinder, Manfred (eds.): Ablehnung – Meidung – Ausschluß: multidisziplinäre Untersucungen über die Kehrseite der Vergemeinschaftung. Berlin (Duncker und Humblot), 1986.]

[PDF] 1986. Biology and law. In Ethology and Sociobiology 7: 167-173R. Masters and M. Gruter (eds.).
[PDF] Translated and republished in German as: Recht, Biologie und Sozialverhalten. pp. 29-36 in: Gruter, Margaret & Rehbinder, Manfred (eds.): Ablehnung – Meidung – Ausschluß: multidisziplinäre Untersucungen über die Kehrseite der Vergemeinschaftung. Berlin (Duncker und Humblot), 1986.

[PDF] 1987. Human hips, breasts, and buttocks: Is fat deceptive? Ethology and Sociobiology 8(4): 249-257. B. S. Low, R. D. Alexander, and K. M. Noonan.

[PDF] 1987. The real origin of the species, Washington Post (June 28, p. C3). Invited editorial.

[PDF] 1987. The crickets of New Caledonia (Gryllidae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia 139: 375-457. (Daniel Otte, R.D. Alexander, and W. Cade).

[PDF] 1988. The evolutionary approach to human behavior: What does the future hold? In Human Reproductive Behavior: A Darwinian Perspective, London: Cambridge Univ. Press, L. L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. W. Turke (eds.), pp. 317-341.

[PDF] 1988. Über die Interessen der Menschen und die Evolution von Lebensabläufen. In Die Herausforderung der Evolutionsbiologie, H. Meier (ed). Munich: R. Piper GmbH & Co. KG, pp. 129-171. Translated by Agnes von Cranach.

[PDF] 1988. Knowledge, intent and morality in Darwin’s world. [A review of Robert J. Richards, Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987)]. Quarterly Review of Biology 63:441-443.

[PDF] 1988. Response to Judith Anderson’s comments on Low, Alexander, and Noonan (1987), Ethology and Sociobiology 9: 325-328. (B. S. Low, R. D. Alexander, and K. M. Noonan).

[PDF] 1989. The evolution of the human psyche. In The Human Revolution, C. Stringer and P. Mellars (eds), Univ. of Edinburgh Press, pp. 455-513.

[PDF] 1989. The evolutionary significance of the aesthetic sense, LSA Magazine, Spring, Volume 12, Number 2, pp. 22-24.

[PDF] 1989. T. H. Hubbell, 1898-1989 (Obituary). Metaleptea: The Orthopterists’ Newsletter 11(1-2):3-5. [The entire issue is included in this PDF]


[PDF] 1990. Epigenetic rules and Darwinian algorithms: The adaptive study of learning and development, Ethology and Sociobiology 11: 241-303.

[PDF] 1990. How did humans evolve? Reflections on the uniquely unique species. Special Publication of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology 1: 1-38.

[PDF] 1991. The evolution of eusociality. In The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat, P. W. Sherman, J. Jarvis, and R. D. Alexander (eds). Princeton Univ. Press. (R. D. Alexander, K. M. Noonan, and B. Crespi).

[PDF] 1991. Unanswered questions about naked mole rats. In The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat, Princeton Univ. Press. P. W. Sherman, J. Jarvis, and R. D. Alexander (eds).

[PDF] 1991. An ethogram of the naked mole-rat. In The Biology of the Naked Mole-Rat, Princeton Univ. Press (E. Lacey, J. Pepper, P. W. Sherman, and R. D. Alexander).

[PDF] 1991. A Review of the Genus Gryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), with a new wpecies From Korea, Great Lakes Entomologist, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 79-84.

[PDF] 1991. Social learning and kin recognition: an addendum and reply to Sherman, Ethology and Sociobiology 12: 387-399.

[PDF] 1993. Biological considerations in the analysis of morality. In Evolutionary Ethics, M. H. Nitecki (ed), State University of New York Press.

[PDF] 1993. A biologist’s approach to human nature. In Man and Creation, M. Bauman, L. Roche, and J. Corombos (eds). Hillsdale, MI, Hillsdale College Press, pp. 191-207.

[PDF] 1994. A report from the director. The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, October 1994. Submitted to Edie N. Goldenberg, Dean, College of Literature, Science & The Arts. 69 pp.

[PDF] 1995. The view from the president’s window: Impressions from the Santa Barbara Meeting. Human Behavior and Evolution Newsletter, Volume 4(2), September 1995.

[PDF] 1996. The view from the president’s window. Human Behavior and Evolution Newsletter. Volume 5(1), February 1996.

[PDF] 1996. The view from the president’s window: Dilemmas of Darwinists: A few tips of the iceberg. Human Behavior and Evolution Newsletter, Volume 5(2), Fall 1996.

[PDF] 1996. New Records of Michigan Cicadidae (Homoptera), with notes on the use of songs to monitor range changes. Great Lakes Entomologist. Vol. 29(3), pp. 165-169. (D.C. Marshall, J. R. Cooley, R. D. Alexander, and T. E. Moore.)

[PDF] 1997. The view from the president’s window: On God, and such. Human Behavior and Evolution Newsletter, Volume 6(1), Spring 1997.

[PDF] 1997. Special report to Dean Edie N. Goldenberg. The University of Michigan Museum Of Zoology, 4 June 1997, ix + 42 pp.

[PDF] 1997. Evolutionary perspectives on insect mating. In: The Evolution of Mating Systems in Insects and Arachnids. J. C. Choe and B. J. Crespi (eds.) Princeton University Press, pp. 4-31. (Richard D. Alexander, David Marshall, and John Cooley).


[PDF] 2000. William D. Hamilton remembered. Natural History, June 2000, Vol. 109, Issue 5.

[PDF] 2001. Range bulls. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 127(3): 289-290.

[PDF] 2003. Crickets. In: Encyclopedia of Insects. Vincent H. Resh and Ring T. Cardé (eds.) New York, Academic Press, pp. 265-269 (Richard D. Alexander and Daniel Otte).

[PDF] 2005. Evolutionary selection and the nature of humanity. In V. Hosle and Ch. Illies (eds). Darwinism and Philosophy (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press), pp. 424-495.

[PDF] 2005. The ills of society can influence “killing gene”. Ann Arbor News. [This is a reply to David Buss’ book The Murderer Next Door: Why the Mind is Designed to Kill. RDA’s original title for the letter was “Not killing is also part of human nature”].

[PDF] 2006. The challenge of human social behavior: A review essay stimulated by Hammerstein, Peter (Ed.) 2003. Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England: MIT Press). Evolutionary Psychology 4: 1-32.

[PDF] 2007. Runaway social selection in human evolution. In Gangestad, Steven W. and Jeffry A. Simpson (eds.), The Evolution of Mind: Fundamental Questions and Controversies. New York: Guildford Press, pp. 249-255. (Mark Flinn and R. D. Alexander).

[PDF] 2008. Evolution and human society. A lecture delivered at the June 2008 Kyoto, Japan, meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society. Human Behavior and Evolution Newsletter, Summer 2008, pp. 5-15; with supplements. [This was RDA’s keynote address upon receiving the HBES Distinguished Scientific Award for Lifetime Contribution to Human Behavior and Evolution. This expanded version, finalized on 26 December 2009, contains (1) an abstract or introduction to the lecture; (2) the lecture itself, entitled “Understanding the human species and its immediate ancestors”; (3) the associated handout, entitled “A brief recounting of recent evolutionary findings”; (4) an appendix of explanatory footnotes; and (5) a table comparing relevant traits among the apes including humans. For the original HBES newsletter version, click here.]

[PDF] 2008. Let’s examine both sides of the coin of human understanding. Ann Arbor News: Other Voices, 17 July. A scan of the original paper copy is here. [This is a reply to a 12 July letter by Ronald G. Larson entitled “Evolutionary theory doesn’t explain it all”]. RDA later retitled this essay “The predictiveness of evolution” but never republished it.

[PDF] 2008. Natural complexity is commonplace. Ann Arbor News: Opinion, 10 August. [A reply to a 4 August letter by Lahki Goenka].

[PDF] 2009. An HBES hero: A special tribute to Dr. Billy E. Frye. Human Behavior and Evolution Society Newsletter. Winter 2009, 2 pp. (Richard D. Alexander, William G. Irons, and Napoleon E. Chagnon).

[PDF] 2010. Understanding ourselves. In L. C. Drickamer and D. A. Dewsbury (eds.), Leaders in Animal Behavior: The Second Generation. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-37. [This paper, as with the others in this two-volume set, is a professional autobiography.]

[PDF] 2013. Religion, evolution and the quest for global harmony. In K. Summers and B. Crespi (eds.), Human Social Evolution: The Foundational Works of Richard D. Alexander (New York: Oxford University Press), pp.384-425. [Included in this file is a poem by RDA selected by the editors, and an introduction by William Irons]

[PDF] 2013. The distribution of periodical cicada Brood III in 1997, with special emphasis on Illinois (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.). American Entomologist 59: 9-14. (Cooley, J.R., Marshall, D.C., Richards, A.F., Alexander, R.D., Irwin, M.D., Coelho, J.R. and Simon, C.).

[PDF] 2014. Darwin’s challenges and the future of human society. In Predicting the Future in Science, Economics, and Politics, F. Wayman, P. Williamson, and B. Bueno de Mesquita (eds.), Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 55-108.

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Unpublished Professional Manuscripts

  • Years listed are those of final revision if constructed over multiple years.
  • Titles in square brackets were added to untitled mss by D. Lahti.
  • Manuscripts primarily released as part of coursepacks for University of Michigan Biology 494, Evolution and Human Behavior, are followed by an asterisk (*). These were often revised annually multiple times; generally only the final version available of each is presented here.

[PDF] 1974. Some thoughts on sexual reproduction. Handout for Zoology 475, University of Michigan. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] c. 1975. A note on genetic load. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] c. 1979. Natural selection and sexuality. Unpublished ms.

Notes on sexuality:
[A series of three brief essays complementary to his 1979 publications on sexuality.]

[PDF] c. 1979. Heterogony and the problem of vertebrate sexuality. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] c. 1979. Outbreeding and sexuality. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] c. 1979. Notes on parthenogenesis. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 1970s. Overview of the influence of relative parental investment and variance in mate quality on female competition and selectivity. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 1970s. Reproductive competition and the evolution of sociality. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 1970s. A note on sexual dimorphism and sexual selection. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 1981. Outlaw genes with green beards: a response to Ridley and Grafen. Unpublished ms. Edited by D. Lahti. [The paper RDA is responding to is M. Ridley & A. Grafen. 1981. Are green beard genes outlaws? Animal Behaviour 29: 954-955. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3472(81)80034-6.]

[PDF] 1988. Prehistoric geography and genetic change in evolving humans. Unpublished ms, 16 May.

[PDF] 1988. Self-awareness, auto-imprinting, and sexual preferences in humans. Unpublished ms, 8 August.

[PDF] 1988. Ethics, racism, and the genetic bases of behavior: can the scientific study of humans ever be squeaky-clean in an open society? Unpublished ms, 12 September.

[PDF] 1988. Evolution of the human psyche and some of its special activities (music emphasized here). Unpublished figure, 10 April.* [Would evolve into the figure in the 1996 “Human creative explosion” suite, unpublished (see below).]

[PDF] 1990. How leks work. Unpublished ms, 12 November.

[PDF] 1991. What is cheating? Defection? Unpublished ms, 14 October.*

[PDF] 1991. Relationships among some variables chosen to suggest how parental care and confidence of paternity correlate. Unpublished figure, 21 October.*

[PDF] 1991. Men against women and vice versa. Unpublished ms, 29 October.*

[PDF] 1991. The disappearance of the human male: a whimsical (?) scenario. Unpublished ms, 29 October.* [A companion piece to “Men against women and vice versa”.]

[PDF] 1991. More on behavioral ontogeny. Unpublished ms, 31 October.  [This is is a follow-up to a discussion with RDA’s students on his ms “What can be said about behavioral ontogeny”, which was originally written and distributed a week earlier on 22 October 1991. It can be found below in 1992 because he revised it in 7 October of that year for his Evolution & Human Behavior class]

[PDF] 1991. Comments on monogamy, desertion, and the geneticist’s speech. Unpublished ms, 15 November.*

[PDF] 1992. Some evolutionary foci in biology. Unpublished figure, 11 September.*

[PDF] 1992. Some comments about science (or the gaining of knowledge). Unpublished ms, 11 September.*

[PDF] 1992. Investigative procedures and sources of evidence in biology. Unpublished ms, 11 September.*

[PDF] 1992. More on hypothesis testing. Unpublished ms, 11 September.*

[PDF] 1992. Some criticisms directed at the concept of adaptation and its use. Unpublished ms, unfinished, 16 September.

[PDF] 1992. A note on human diversity. Unpublished ms, 2 October.*

[PDF] 1992. What can be said about behavioral ontogeny– for animals in general and humans in particular? Unpublished ms, 7 October.* [See also the subsequent essay, written after this one was discussed in his lab, entitled “More on behavioral ontogeny”, 31 October 1991 (a year earlier because the followup was not revised in 1992 as the original was).]

[PDF] 1992. Why the levels of selection problem seems so difficult to resolve. Unpublished ms, 7 October.*

[PDF] 1992. Kinds of social interactions: contrasting nepotism, ecological mutualism, social reciprocity, and some other interactions that mimic social reciprocity. Unpublished ms, 15 October.*

[PDF] 1992. The so-called “prisoner’s dilemma”, an example from game theory commonly used to discuss social reciprocity. Unpublished figure, 19 October.*

[PDF] 1992. Some notes regarding the psychological distress questions. Unpublished ms, 4 November.*

[PDF] 1992. Humor and laughter– and play. Unpublished ms, 11 November.*

[PDF] 1992. The human evolutionary trajectory. Unpublished figure and ms, 16 November.*

[PDF] 1992. Outbreeding, incest avoidance, resource partition, and alliances. 18 November.*

[PDF] 1992. Some notes on !Kung bushmen kinship nomenclature and social behavior. Unpublished ms, 30 November.*

[PDF] 1992. On sex ratio selection. Unpublished ms, 9 December.*

[PDF] 1992. A theory of music. Unpublished ms, 11 December.*

[PDF] 1992. Biology 494 Evolution and Human Behavior Coursepack, Fall 1992. University of Michigan. 293 pp.  [This document is comprised of original unpublished topical writings by RDA (all of which are individually represented elsewhere on this page), excerpts from published writings by RDA and others, and class-related materials such as explanations and essay questions.]

[PDF] 1993. [Entry in a journal of a visit to Australia]. Unpublished ms, 25 March. Edited by D. Lahti. [Contains:]

1. [Varieties of animal signals and a theory of mind.]

2. How religion originated: outline of a sequence or hypothesis

[PDF] 1993. Learning. Unpublished ms, 31 October.

[PDF] 1993. Some essays discussing culture. Unpublished mss, 29 November.* [Includes an introduction followed by five essays:]

1. General comments on culture. [Previous versions are titled “Some comments on culture”]

2. Explaining the demographic transition.

3. On matrilocality and chiefly succession on Pacific Islands.

4. An introduction to the problem of parallel and cross cousins.

5. Barkow on cousin marriages. [Previous versions are titled “A comment on Barkow’s (1989) arguments on the ‘psychological mechanisms’ underlying asymmetrical treatment and his implication of error on my part”. Appended is an introduction to a class assignment that provides more background for RDA’s position and Barkow’s criticism.]

[PDF] 1994. Thoughts about adaptiveness: stimulated by and intended to stimulate the Systematics Study Group. Unpublished ms, 8 March.

[PDF] 1994. Some notes on genetics. Unpublished ms, 9 September.*

[PDF] 1994. Bush and Beals on homosexuality. Unpublished ms, 26 October.* [Originally submitted as a letter to the Ann Arbor News, but rejected.]

[PDF] 1996. Biology as analysis of a game such as chess. Unpublished ms, 30 April.

[PDF] 1996. Why live in groups, and kinds of social interactions. Unpublished ms, 21 October. [Lecture notes for University of Michigan Biology 494, Evolution and Human Behavior, with extensive handwritten addenda.]

[PDF] 1996. Lecture notes on humor. Unpublished ms, 18 November.*

[PDF] 1996. The human creative explosion [suite]. Unpublished ms, 16 December.* [Contains:]

1. The human creative explosion. [Points 1-9.]

2. An effort to classify sources or kinds of evolutionary selection. [Dated 2 December; includes handwritten notes.]

3. Summary of co-evolutionary socially reciprocal selection based on condition-dependent or runaway reciprocal passing of benefits. [A resumption of “The human creative explosion”, points 10-20.]

4. Evolution of the human psyche and some of its special activities. [Figure. Based on “Evolution of the human psyche and some of its special activities (music emphasized here)”, unpublished figure, 1988 (see above).]

[PDF] 1997. On group selection. Unpublished ms, 17 March. [See also 2001 unpublished ms with the same title.]

[PDF] 1997. Speciation, with special reference to the singing insects of North America [suite]. Unpublished ms, 9 November. [Contains:]

1. [Introductory essay]

2. Outline of talk

3. Ten reasons why North America is the best place in the world to do systematic work

4. Ten reasons why singing insects are the best group for studying man general problems of species and speciation

1997. Understanding Humanity: The Human Species in Evolutionary Perspective. Prepared as a text for Biology 494, University of Michigan (with Andrew F. Richards).

1998. Reply to Matt Cartmill. Unpublished ms, 16 March.

[PDF] 1998. On the evolutionary significance of smoking tobacco. Unpublished ms, 15 April.*

[PDF] 1998. Using evolutionary selection to help understand humanity. Lecture handout. Unpublished ms, 16 September.

1999. The Williamsburg Address. Unpublished ms, 11 January.

[PDF] 1999. The (?) three great gaps in biology. Unpublished ms, 8 February.

1999. Comment on Ewald. 15 February.

[PDF] 1999. Trying to make evolutionary sense of some human uniqueness. Handout to the University of Michigan Evolution and Human Adaptation Program. Unpublished ms, March.

1999. Some contrasts in evolutionary routes to social systems and social brains. Unpublished ms, 9 March.

2000. On the advocacy of intelligent design of life. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 2001. On group selection. Unpublished ms, 11 March. [See also 1997 unpublished ms with the same title.]

2001. Complexity and adaptation. Unpublished ms, 31 October.

[PDF] 1997-2001. Some startling new discoveries in recent years, from adaptationist and other evolutionary approaches. Unpublished ms, unfinished. [Dated from the years Julian Adams was Chair of the UM Bio Dept., when he gave the lecture that spurred RDA to write this piece.]

[PDF] 2002. The woes of the world. Unpublished ms, 4 February.

[PDF] 2002. The biology of pleiotropies: understanding gene effects, vertically and horizontally. Unpublished ms, 15 April.

[PDF] 2003. Who is misusing the moral module: the self-declared godless, the faith-based, or both? Unpublished ms, 10 April. [Notes for a lecture to an atheist audience “plumping for a Day of Reason on the same day as Bush’s Day of Prayer”]

2003. Forms of evolutionary selection. Unpublished ms, July.

[PDF] 2004. The nature of human morality. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 2004. Prayer for the kindred of the world. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 2004. Fruit. Unpublished ms, 22 September. [Drafted as a letter suggesting a school lesson plan to his daughter Nancy].

[PDF] 2005. [On interspecific hybridization.] Unpublished ms, 15 January. Edited by D. Lahti.

[PDF] 2005. Humor and hostility. Unpublished ms, 2 May. [Revision of a 1991 essay, fashioned as a letter to Andrew Richards & David Lahti in preparation for a humor chapter in a projected revision of Understanding Humanity, q.v.]

[PDF] 2006. The concept of God and the meaning of life. Unpublished ms. [Included as an addendum is a publication-friendly version of the “Prayer for the kindred of the world” (c.f. 2004 above).]

[PDF] 2006. Review of The Roots of Morality by Maxine Sheets-Johnstone. Unpublished ms, 16 May.

[PDF] 2007. Bragging rights: the sides of the social cooperation coin. Unpublished ms, 23 February.

[PDF] 2007. Have God and evolution constructed humans jointly? Unpublished ms, 1 May.  [A version from 23 February 2007 is here.]

[PDF] 2007. Self-interest and its alternatives. Unpublished ms, 12 March.

[PDF] 2007. Responses to the online comments [an Amazon.com review] of the economist Herbert Gintis regarding The Biology of Moral Systems. 14 April.

[PDF] 2008. On ultimacy in the life sciences. Unpublished ms. [a 2004 version is here].

[PDF] 2009. Cooperation and selection in groups. Unpublished ms, 21 September.

[PDF] 1990s-2000s. Monogamy, democracy, and morality: some speculations about the force of multiple confluences of interest. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] late 2000s. Evolution and intelligent design. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 2010. Critique of Frans de Waal’s 12 May 2010 lecture at the University of Michigan: “Monkey Business: Cooperation and Fairness in Primates”. Unpublished ms.

[PDF] 2010. Polygyny, Islam, and terrorism. Unpublished ms. Edited by D. Lahti. [Originally written to Billy Frye, RDA’s friend and former Professor of Zoology and Dean of Literature, Science, & the Arts at the University of Michigan. Appended is a response to Frye’s question as to what RDA hoped to achieve with such a piece.].

2011. The mockingbird, or, Religion: an evolved adaptation? And what if it is?! Unpublished ms, 28 May.

[PDF] 2012. Notes for a review of Deceit and Self Deception by Robert Trivers, 2011. Unpublished ms., ed. D. Lahti.

[PDF] 2013. Lecturing, and how to improve it. Unpublished ms, 21 January.

[PDF] 2000s-2010s. An annotated glossary of evolutionary terms. [A nascent work; contains entries for the following terms:]

1. Adaptation
2. Design
3. Development
4. Gene
5. Reproductive Success


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Nonprofessional Works

1969. Excerpts from an Australian Journal. xiv + 495 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately. Revised as White Man’s Fire (2016), see below.]

1975. Pop: 111 Stories about My Father. 139 pp., 19 drawings. [Unpublished, distributed privately. Revised as Pop’s Story (2005), see below.]

1977. The Clarksburg Cat, and Other Things That Happened along the Way: 41 Stories and Verses, 141 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately.]

1979. A Part of the Hunting: 66 Verses written between 1949 and 1979. vii + 102 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately.]

[PDF] 1988. Moving my family to Michigan, 9 pp. [Unpublished, originally intended for Notes on the Faculty; written in August 1988, revised in the 2010s].

[PDF] 1991. Mom’s Story. The Life of Katharine Elizabeth Heath Alexander Stutzenstein (edited).128 pp., 101 photographs, 2 maps, 1 drawing. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books [compiled and edited by RDA– text is mostly from Katharine’s perspective, originating in interviews by RDA]. In 1991 and 1992, RDA created two lists of errata: here.

[PDF] 1994. How to ride young horses trained by Dick Alexander. [Unpublished, often sent as a letter or given as a handout when he sold a horse.]

1997. Playin’ Cowboy: 71 Verses, Songs, Stories, and Sketches, 160 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately. Expanded and published in 2006 under a similar title, see below.]

1998. Dick Alexander’s Song Book I. 500+ Songs I Have Known and Sung: 1948-1998. 556 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately.]

1998. Dick Alexander’s Song Book. II. 200+ Songs from Old and Out-of-Print Books. 426 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately.]

1998. Dick Alexander’s Song Book III. 88 Songs and Verses I Have Written, Modified, or Discovered, and Saved. 1951-1998. 258 pp. [Unpublished, distributed privately.]

1998. The Harley Davidson reining horse. Poem and drawing. National Reining Horse Association Reiner, February 1996, p. 115.

[PDF] 2000. An old-time vet. Manchester Enterprise, July 6, pp. 4,10.

2001. Letter to the editor on imprinting of foals. The Horse. 

[PDF] 2001. Club 48: A Personal Account of Blackburn College and the Men of Butler Basement. 1946-48. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books, 128 pp., 51 photographs.

[PDF] 2001. Teaching Yourself to Train Your Horse. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books, xiv + 276 pp., 334 color photographs by Andrew F. Richards, 3 color diagrams, three appendices, bibliography.
[In 2002 RDA posted a list of (minor) errata: here.]

Essays on Horses and Horse Training:
[The essays in this informal series were conceived as supplements to his 2001 book Teaching Yourself to Train Your Horse. Each was either posted on or intended for the (now defunct) Woodlane Farm website.]

[PDF] 2001. Keeping the young horse’s trust while riding.
[PDF] [Reprinted in a Finnish translation in Western Riders Finland, v.2/2002, transl. Juha Leppänen, pp. 26-27. This PDF contains the entire issue].

[PDF] 2002. Understanding rewards and punishment in horse training.

[PDF] 2002. Targeting, clicker-bridging, and positive and negative aspects of horse training. (Richard D. Alexander and Cynthia Kagarise Sherman).

[PDF] 2002. Four ways of training (Richard D. Alexander and Cynthia Kagarise Sherman). [Includes an introduction to Cindy].

[PDF] 2002. Two seconds a day can gentle your horse.

[PDF] 2002. Holding on with upper legs.

[PDF] 2002. Long latigos.

[PDF] 2002. On using ropes to lift a young horse’s legs and questions about secure tying.

[PDF] 2002. An accidentally omitted reference on advanced riding.

[PDF] 2003. On bits and biting.  [published by Gala Nettles in her column in Quarter Horse News, 15 October 2003, pp.94-95.]

[PDF] 2004. A note on haltering.

[PDF] 2004. Give your horse a break.

[PDF] 2004. On being too tentative.

2003. The old German horse farmer of Freedom Township. Poem. Manchester Enterprise, Manchester, MI. Thursday 12 April 2003, p.9A.

[PDF] 2004. The Red Fox and Johnny Valentine’s Blue-Speckled Hound. 93 pp., 21 watercolors by John Megahan, numerous pencil sketches of red foxes by William Berry. Woodlane Farm Press.

[PDF] 2005. Pop’s Story: A Midwestern Farm Boy’s Memories of Times with His Father. 162 pp. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2006. Looking back: Ann Arbor balers. Manchester Enterprise, Manchester, MI. Thursday 12 October. p.2B.

2006. Looking back: The last threshing run in Piatt County, Illinois. Manchester Enterprise, Manchester, MI. Thursday 28 September. p.3B. Photographs by Mark O’Brien.

2006. Playin’ Cowboy. 320 pp. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2007. Toy collection of Richard D. Alexander. 89 pp. Unpublished ms. [A catalogue of ~675 + toys, manufactured mostly between 1930-1950, by 51 manufacturers from ~20 countries; followed by a retrospective autobiographical “Postscript” (pp.81-82), and notes for a lecture entitled “The Joys of Old Toys” (pp.83-89).]

2007? Op Ed on evolution and creationism. Ann Arbor News.

2008. Reply to __ re creationism and evolution. Ann Arbor News 2008.

[PDF] 2009. Thumping On Trees. 43 pp. 3 stories. Illustrations by John Megahan. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2011. The Mockingbird’s River Song: Poems, Essays, Songs & Stories, 1946-2011. xiii+313 pp. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2012 [unfinished]. Special Babies & Their Parents: Calves, Colts, Kids, and Others. [This is a portion of a proposed book, containing examples of observations of animal babies by RDA and Megan, with an addendum about the distinctiveness of the human baby.]

[PDF] 2015. Notes On The Faculty- Including, of Course, a Few Curious Examples. ix+174 pp. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2015. Stealing Watermelons: Tales from Sangamon Township. iv+245 pp. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

[PDF] 2016. White Man’s Fire: Tales Of Two Cricket Hunters in Australia, 1968-1969. 209 pp. Illustrations and photographs by Daniel Otte. Manchester, MI: Woodlane Farm Books.

Of ladybugs and their betters. Poem. The Wanderer.

Letter to Ann Arbor News re Bridgewater Bank Tavern (quoted).

Letter to columnist in Quarter Horse News re horse bridle bits (included in the column).

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This website was launched in June 2010 and is a work in progress.
For more information or to become involved,
contact David Lahti at dclahti@gmail.com.

In addition to RDA of course, thanks to Lorrie Alexander, John Cooley, Daniel Otte, Eckart Voland, Mary Jane West-Eberhard, and especially Nancy Alexander for providing a few hard-to-find writings. Thanks to Michelle Mordukhaev for contributing to the scanning and posting. Thanks to Nancy Alexander and Lorrie Alexander for guidance and permission.

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